How to Master Forex Market Structure in 3 Simple Steps ...

Former investment bank FX trader: some thoughts

Former investment bank FX trader: some thoughts
Hi guys,
I have been using reddit for years in my personal life (not trading!) and wanted to give something back in an area where i am an expert.
I worked at an investment bank for seven years and joined them as a graduate FX trader so have lots of professional experience, by which i mean I was trained and paid by a big institution to trade on their behalf. This is very different to being a full-time home trader, although that is not to discredit those guys, who can accumulate a good amount of experience/wisdom through self learning.
When I get time I'm going to write a mid-length posts on each topic for you guys along the lines of how i was trained. I guess there would be 15-20 topics in total so about 50-60 posts. Feel free to comment or ask questions.
The first topic is Risk Management and we'll cover it in three parts
Part I
  • Why it matters
  • Position sizing
  • Kelly
  • Using stops sensibly
  • Picking a clear level

Why it matters

The first rule of making money through trading is to ensure you do not lose money. Look at any serious hedge fund’s website and they’ll talk about their first priority being “preservation of investor capital.”
You have to keep it before you grow it.
Strangely, if you look at retail trading websites, for every one article on risk management there are probably fifty on trade selection. This is completely the wrong way around.
The great news is that this stuff is pretty simple and process-driven. Anyone can learn and follow best practices.
Seriously, avoiding mistakes is one of the most important things: there's not some holy grail system for finding winning trades, rather a routine and fairly boring set of processes that ensure that you are profitable, despite having plenty of losing trades alongside the winners.

Capital and position sizing

The first thing you have to know is how much capital you are working with. Let’s say you have $100,000 deposited. This is your maximum trading capital. Your trading capital is not the leveraged amount. It is the amount of money you have deposited and can withdraw or lose.
Position sizing is what ensures that a losing streak does not take you out of the market.
A rule of thumb is that one should risk no more than 2% of one’s account balance on an individual trade and no more than 8% of one’s account balance on a specific theme. We’ll look at why that’s a rule of thumb later. For now let’s just accept those numbers and look at examples.
So we have $100,000 in our account. And we wish to buy EURUSD. We should therefore not be risking more than 2% which $2,000.
We look at a technical chart and decide to leave a stop below the monthly low, which is 55 pips below market. We’ll come back to this in a bit. So what should our position size be?
We go to the calculator page, select Position Size and enter our details. There are many such calculators online - just google "Pip calculator".

https://preview.redd.it/y38zb666e5h51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=26e4fe569dc5c1f43ce4c746230c49b138691d14
So the appropriate size is a buy position of 363,636 EURUSD. If it reaches our stop level we know we’ll lose precisely $2,000 or 2% of our capital.
You should be using this calculator (or something similar) on every single trade so that you know your risk.
Now imagine that we have similar bets on EURJPY and EURGBP, which have also broken above moving averages. Clearly this EUR-momentum is a theme. If it works all three bets are likely to pay off. But if it goes wrong we are likely to lose on all three at once. We are going to look at this concept of correlation in more detail later.
The total amount of risk in our portfolio - if all of the trades on this EUR-momentum theme were to hit their stops - should not exceed $8,000 or 8% of total capital. This allows us to go big on themes we like without going bust when the theme does not work.
As we’ll see later, many traders only win on 40-60% of trades. So you have to accept losing trades will be common and ensure you size trades so they cannot ruin you.
Similarly, like poker players, we should risk more on trades we feel confident about and less on trades that seem less compelling. However, this should always be subject to overall position sizing constraints.
For example before you put on each trade you might rate the strength of your conviction in the trade and allocate a position size accordingly:

https://preview.redd.it/q2ea6rgae5h51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=4332cb8d0bbbc3d8db972c1f28e8189105393e5b
To keep yourself disciplined you should try to ensure that no more than one in twenty trades are graded exceptional and allocated 5% of account balance risk. It really should be a rare moment when all the stars align for you.
Notice that the nice thing about dealing in percentages is that it scales. Say you start out with $100,000 but end the year up 50% at $150,000. Now a 1% bet will risk $1,500 rather than $1,000. That makes sense as your capital has grown.
It is extremely common for retail accounts to blow-up by making only 4-5 losing trades because they are leveraged at 50:1 and have taken on far too large a position, relative to their account balance.
Consider that GBPUSD tends to move 1% each day. If you have an account balance of $10k then it would be crazy to take a position of $500k (50:1 leveraged). A 1% move on $500k is $5k.
Two perfectly regular down days in a row — or a single day’s move of 2% — and you will receive a margin call from the broker, have the account closed out, and have lost all your money.
Do not let this happen to you. Use position sizing discipline to protect yourself.

Kelly Criterion

If you’re wondering - why “about 2%” per trade? - that’s a fair question. Why not 0.5% or 10% or any other number?
The Kelly Criterion is a formula that was adapted for use in casinos. If you know the odds of winning and the expected pay-off, it tells you how much you should bet in each round.
This is harder than it sounds. Let’s say you could bet on a weighted coin flip, where it lands on heads 60% of the time and tails 40% of the time. The payout is $2 per $1 bet.
Well, absolutely you should bet. The odds are in your favour. But if you have, say, $100 it is less obvious how much you should bet to avoid ruin.
Say you bet $50, the odds that it could land on tails twice in a row are 16%. You could easily be out after the first two flips.
Equally, betting $1 is not going to maximise your advantage. The odds are 60/40 in your favour so only betting $1 is likely too conservative. The Kelly Criterion is a formula that produces the long-run optimal bet size, given the odds.
Applying the formula to forex trading looks like this:
Position size % = Winning trade % - ( (1- Winning trade %) / Risk-reward ratio
If you have recorded hundreds of trades in your journal - see next chapter - you can calculate what this outputs for you specifically.
If you don't have hundreds of trades then let’s assume some realistic defaults of Winning trade % being 30% and Risk-reward ratio being 3. The 3 implies your TP is 3x the distance of your stop from entry e.g. 300 pips take profit and 100 pips stop loss.
So that’s 0.3 - (1 - 0.3) / 3 = 6.6%.
Hold on a second. 6.6% of your account probably feels like a LOT to risk per trade.This is the main observation people have on Kelly: whilst it may optimise the long-run results it doesn’t take into account the pain of drawdowns. It is better thought of as the rational maximum limit. You needn’t go right up to the limit!
With a 30% winning trade ratio, the odds of you losing on four trades in a row is nearly one in four. That would result in a drawdown of nearly a quarter of your starting account balance. Could you really stomach that and put on the fifth trade, cool as ice? Most of us could not.
Accordingly people tend to reduce the bet size. For example, let’s say you know you would feel emotionally affected by losing 25% of your account.
Well, the simplest way is to divide the Kelly output by four. You have effectively hidden 75% of your account balance from Kelly and it is now optimised to avoid a total wipeout of just the 25% it can see.
This gives 6.6% / 4 = 1.65%. Of course different trading approaches and different risk appetites will provide different optimal bet sizes but as a rule of thumb something between 1-2% is appropriate for the style and risk appetite of most retail traders.
Incidentally be very wary of systems or traders who claim high winning trade % like 80%. Invariably these don’t pass a basic sense-check:
  • How many live trades have you done? Often they’ll have done only a handful of real trades and the rest are simulated backtests, which are overfitted. The model will soon die.
  • What is your risk-reward ratio on each trade? If you have a take profit $3 away and a stop loss $100 away, of course most trades will be winners. You will not be making money, however! In general most traders should trade smaller position sizes and less frequently than they do. If you are going to bias one way or the other, far better to start off too small.

How to use stop losses sensibly

Stop losses have a bad reputation amongst the retail community but are absolutely essential to risk management. No serious discretionary trader can operate without them.
A stop loss is a resting order, left with the broker, to automatically close your position if it reaches a certain price. For a recap on the various order types visit this chapter.
The valid concern with stop losses is that disreputable brokers look for a concentration of stops and then, when the market is close, whipsaw the price through the stop levels so that the clients ‘stop out’ and sell to the broker at a low rate before the market naturally comes back higher. This is referred to as ‘stop hunting’.
This would be extremely immoral behaviour and the way to guard against it is to use a highly reputable top-tier broker in a well regulated region such as the UK.
Why are stop losses so important? Well, there is no other way to manage risk with certainty.
You should always have a pre-determined stop loss before you put on a trade. Not having one is a recipe for disaster: you will find yourself emotionally attached to the trade as it goes against you and it will be extremely hard to cut the loss. This is a well known behavioural bias that we’ll explore in a later chapter.
Learning to take a loss and move on rationally is a key lesson for new traders.
A common mistake is to think of the market as a personal nemesis. The market, of course, is totally impersonal; it doesn’t care whether you make money or not.
Bruce Kovner, founder of the hedge fund Caxton Associates
There is an old saying amongst bank traders which is “losers average losers”.
It is tempting, having bought EURUSD and seeing it go lower, to buy more. Your average price will improve if you keep buying as it goes lower. If it was cheap before it must be a bargain now, right? Wrong.
Where does that end? Always have a pre-determined cut-off point which limits your risk. A level where you know the reason for the trade was proved ‘wrong’ ... and stick to it strictly. If you trade using discretion, use stops.

Picking a clear level

Where you leave your stop loss is key.
Typically traders will leave them at big technical levels such as recent highs or lows. For example if EURUSD is trading at 1.1250 and the recent month’s low is 1.1205 then leaving it just below at 1.1200 seems sensible.

If you were going long, just below the double bottom support zone seems like a sensible area to leave a stop
You want to give it a bit of breathing room as we know support zones often get challenged before the price rallies. This is because lots of traders identify the same zones. You won’t be the only one selling around 1.1200.
The “weak hands” who leave their sell stop order at exactly the level are likely to get taken out as the market tests the support. Those who leave it ten or fifteen pips below the level have more breathing room and will survive a quick test of the level before a resumed run-up.
Your timeframe and trading style clearly play a part. Here’s a candlestick chart (one candle is one day) for GBPUSD.

https://preview.redd.it/moyngdy4f5h51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=91af88da00dd3a09e202880d8029b0ddf04fb802
If you are putting on a trend-following trade you expect to hold for weeks then you need to have a stop loss that can withstand the daily noise. Look at the downtrend on the chart. There were plenty of days in which the price rallied 60 pips or more during the wider downtrend.
So having a really tight stop of, say, 25 pips that gets chopped up in noisy short-term moves is not going to work for this kind of trade. You need to use a wider stop and take a smaller position size, determined by the stop level.
There are several tools you can use to help you estimate what is a safe distance and we’ll look at those in the next section.
There are of course exceptions. For example, if you are doing range-break style trading you might have a really tight stop, set just below the previous range high.

https://preview.redd.it/ygy0tko7f5h51.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=34af49da61c911befdc0db26af66f6c313556c81
Clearly then where you set stops will depend on your trading style as well as your holding horizons and the volatility of each instrument.
Here are some guidelines that can help:
  1. Use technical analysis to pick important levels (support, resistance, previous high/lows, moving averages etc.) as these provide clear exit and entry points on a trade.
  2. Ensure that the stop gives your trade enough room to breathe and reflects your timeframe and typical volatility of each pair. See next section.
  3. Always pick your stop level first. Then use a calculator to determine the appropriate lot size for the position, based on the % of your account balance you wish to risk on the trade.
So far we have talked about price-based stops. There is another sort which is more of a fundamental stop, used alongside - not instead of - price stops. If either breaks you’re out.
For example if you stop understanding why a product is going up or down and your fundamental thesis has been confirmed wrong, get out. For example, if you are long because you think the central bank is turning hawkish and AUDUSD is going to play catch up with rates … then you hear dovish noises from the central bank and the bond yields retrace lower and back in line with the currency - close your AUDUSD position. You already know your thesis was wrong. No need to give away more money to the market.

Coming up in part II

EDIT: part II here
Letting stops breathe
When to change a stop
Entering and exiting winning positions
Risk:reward ratios
Risk-adjusted returns

Coming up in part III

Squeezes and other risks
Market positioning
Bet correlation
Crap trades, timeouts and monthly limits

***
Disclaimer:This content is not investment advice and you should not place any reliance on it. The views expressed are the author's own and should not be attributed to any other person, including their employer.
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Binary Options Recovery: Scammed Traders, Fake Brokers, and Funds Recovery

Binary Options Recovery: Scammed Traders, Fake Brokers, and Funds Recovery
Following the “permanent temporary” measures against binary options and CFDs (contract for difference), the body in charge implements its own set of limitations that simply forbids regulated houses to offer such product in the UK, hence increasing the risk of pushing retails traders towards illegal brokers and outright scams. Fortunately, a new solution is now available to UK traders via a new United Kingdom Financial regulatory ruling.
More scrutiny from UK banks about financial transactions, even to binary optionsIn short, banks will have to take more responsibility about the financial transactions they facilitate. This new ruling should lead to the creation of a new code of conduct that will help defrauded people to have their funds recovered by their bank, unless it is proven they acted recklessly.
As a popular Financial blog puts, it, “It is likely that should a bank or credit card company be either impersonated by a fraudster in order to gain money, or trick a client into depositing, and the bank allows the transfer, a client will be able to take recourse.
The broad protection should kick for many online scheme and scams, whether it is fake investment companies, fraudulent binary options brokers or those scammers who promise to help you recover your stolen funds…only to steal from you once again. On the other hands, it means the banks will be more likely to forbid transactions to legit businesses, such as reputable cryptocurrency exchanges or honest smart options platforms.
The regulating bodies and financial institutions are taking a number of measures to prevent financial fraud. Binary options trading, in particular, is being controlled with a greater degree of robustness to protect the unwary general public being drawn into a situation where they suffer financial losses. Many hundreds of people around the world are targeted each day.
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Frequently they are novice investors who are unfamiliar with the markets and do not recognize that the so-called trading platform and its way of working are actually bogus. The individual only realizes the extent of the fraud when eventually when the fraudsters finally decide that there is no more money to be had and shut down the account and promptly vanish without trace.
Spotting Fraudulent Binary Options Broker
Some lawyers in the financial fraud division are very familiar with the pattern of behaviour demonstrated by the fraudulent brokers and the distress caused by their dealings with inexperienced investors. There is a track of record of recovery in relation to financial fraud and has a number of strategies and tactics to compel the fraudulent broker or associated financial service providers to restore funds to those who have been deceived.
Needless to say, the fraudsters are accomplished at hiding their tracks and frequently there are myriad inter-connected limited liability companies, often some are registered in different countries, with some dormant and some active. It is hardly surprising if the complexity of the situation results in a failure to discover a single person who can be challenged and held accountable.
However, there are various channels financial fraud lawyers use when attempting to retrieve money for clients and each avenue is investigated. Whilst an individual may be alarmed and confused at the prospect of navigating through the complex structures that have been deliberately set up to confuse, Financial fraud lawyers are usually quite familiar with strategies fraudsters use, and frequently can steer a course to the recovery of some or all of the lost money.
https://preview.redd.it/daa505b3ecf51.jpg?width=600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b27aa7697b0bf1afbd238964166ce40c693db2e3
The step of last resort, legal action, is understandably daunting for a person who often has lost significant amounts of money to the fraudulent brokers. It is fully understandable that such a situation will leave the victim decidedly risk-averse. There have been experiences with class actions against the fraudulent brokers and has developed links with litigation funding organizations in order to offset the risk in respect of class actions.
The lessons that can be drawn from the experiences of those individuals who have had the misfortune of losing their investments to fraudsters are to be extremely cautious. Always consider every offer or investment for at least 48 hours before making a decision, a genuine broker will understand the caution that a new investor will view a proposition.
All investments carry a risk and anything that promises a return on your initial investment seems to be significantly higher than normal it is almost certainly not to be trusted. Do not allow yourself to be hurried into a decision, it is highly unlikely that an authentic broker would try to rush you into an investment, especially if you demonstrated reluctance; their reputation would suffer by such behaviour.
You can now recover all money lost to bitcoin, binary options, cryptocurrency, investment, scam by hiring any one of these Verified Wealth Recovery Experts.
To recover money lost to binary options, forex, bitcoins, cryptocurrency, and investment, get all the information you need here; https://bitcoinbinaryoptionsreview.com/binary-options-uk-scammed-traders-fake-brokers-and-funds-recovery/
submitted by sinenyoku to u/sinenyoku [link] [comments]

How to Make Profit in Forex Trading: Eight Problems to Avoid

How to Make Profit in Forex Trading: Eight Problems to Avoid

https://preview.redd.it/9fiwhr3in7g51.jpg?width=512&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8b015dd89d0db8f7e87c819b1363ccecad041f77
Many people erroneously believed that no one can make profit consistently through forex trading. Often times, they blame others for their losses while forgetting that they are responsible to decide whether their trade ends up in profit or loss.

“Champions never complain, they are too busy getting better”– John Wooden

For those who have the right mindset that they are going to be among the few who make a fortune by making profit consistently in the financial markets; they always take up the challenge to identify the problems and find solutions to improve themselves. They always have the inner drive and determination to find their trading mistakes and fix the problems which will help them to improve and become an expert trader. This positive attitude is very crucial in helping a loser to become a winner in forex trading. If people like Warren Buffet and George Soros can make a good life trading the financial markets, why can’t anyone who is ready to learn, consistently review and improve his/her trading plan, do it better?
From my own personal experience in trading the financial markets, I want to humbly share the following problems and really hope that it will help other traders to trade better and become winners in forex trading.
Although, there may be more, these are the Eight common problems I have encountered and heard many other traders struggle with in their process of making profit consistently in forex trading:
(1) Too early entry (Emotional triggers)
(2) Too late entry (Doubting your analysis)
(3) Too early exit (Panic Take Profit)
(4) Too late exit (Greedy delay)
(5) Holding on to losing trades against the market trend (Stubborn traps)
(6) Using too high lot sizes (Over leveraging your account)
(7) Poor money management (Investing more than 2% of your account balance or equity on one trade)
(8) Poor risk-reward ratio (Having too many open trades running simultaneously)

Steps to diagnose Trading Problems

(1) Check your trades at the end of each trading week; mostly on Saturday or Sunday evenings.
(2) Review your trading log or Account History. Make sure you are very honest and practical with yourself. This is about money. It is better to criticize yourself very hard than to regret losing your hard-earned money due to cheap errors or mistakes.
By honestly following the steps above, you should be able to identify any of the Eight Common problems listed above. This will help you to know which of the problems is most commonly affecting your trading outcome or reducing your profit.
When you have successfully discovered this highly important problem or problems (if more than one), then you can focus on solving them sequentially, starting from the most frequent to the least common as revealed during the review of your trading log or Account history weekly.
It is important that you never stop conducting the weekly review, so as to constantly learn and improve for better trading. Doing this consistently will help you to personally understand your own psychology and problematic behaviours or habits and also see if you are improving or not. With your commitment to this self-improvement process, you will surely become an expert in forex trading and your capacity to make profit consistently will improve significantly. Then you will become a forex winner for life!

“Learn from your losses, and improve your analysis for higher profit”.


https://preview.redd.it/qfl1nsikn7g51.jpg?width=512&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=bc69d61f28ab6b8da8251c1825aecc21bca7e60e
Summary
If you can carefully follow the steps and work towards avoiding the Eight Common problems mentioned above, there is higher chance that you will be able to trade better and achieve more profits in Forex Trading. Most especially when you choose a reliable forex broker like OlympTrade due to their unique and innovative trading platform.
Considering my years of trading experience using the OlympTrade website or mobile App, I sincerely assure you of making consistent profits, if you take personal responsibility by identifying and fixing the Eight Common problems highlighted above. By now, I hope you are more confident that you can make profits consistently and live a good life through forex trading.
Thanks for reading and adding your own comment to this article.
Trade to win!
submitted by MxLawal to u/MxLawal [link] [comments]

Is it different from forex? (stock's whales)

I always think about forex as the manipulation of strong hands towards retailers. Can the same concept be applied to stocks or there is some difference?
I ask this because the best way to profit of market is to be ''the guy the gors along with whales''..so I'd lie to understand if there is some difference (even if minimal) in behaviour between a stock's whale and a forex whale.
submitted by luchins to stocks [link] [comments]

Forex Scalping Trading Stategy

Forex Scalping Trading Stategy
Dear Traders,
My name is Ludovico and I am an associate of Horizon Trading team. Today, I would like to share with you a scalping technique that will give you an advantage in following price action fluctuations. Most importantly, this article will focus on fast timeframes trading tactics, how to spot important key levels and trigger your positions.
So, do scalping and price action go well together?
Considering that price action aims to predict what price is doing right now and where is heading, fast mindset and quick analysis become crucial; scalp trading is about the same thing. A scalp trade will take approximately 1 to 30 minutes, so to be effective and consistent in this discipline one must be reacting rapidly to price movements. Therefore, scalp requires quick analysis, quick responses and quick decisions, and at its core there is price action, which as well is all about speed and efficiency.
Now let s move on today’s topic on how to steadily understand fast trading potential earning set ups and to become a killer scalper.

What is scalping trading?

Scalping is a trading style that specialize in profiting off small price changes. It requires high level of concentration, because, due to its speed, a trader must have a strict entry exit strategy, otherwise one large loss could cancel all the many small gains in a blink of an eye.
The main features of scalping are:
Less exposure, lesser risk: A smaller exposure to price fluctuation will reduce the odds to run into adverse events.
Smaller moves are easier to forecast: Because like every market forex works on principles of supply and demands, a higher imbalance is needed to generate bigger price changes.
Smaller fluctuations are more regular than wider ones: Even in days when markets tend to less volatile, working with smaller timeframes such as (M1, M5, M15 & M30) will still grant chance of earning more frequently.
While swing trading relies on big price moves, therefore aiming for long trend following a scalper will trade that fluctuation continuously. Price action comes into play here, a solid scalp trader must be very aware of level of support and resistance and when the price could bounce off.
See image Below:

Figure 1: Support & Resistance, XAUUSD, M1, (23rd July 2019
In order to better find these areas a comparison between timeframes is necessary considering that is always advantageous to highlights the most recent zones of support & resistance (2 to 5 previous days)
Once understanding levels strategy become easier to follow, let’s find out.

Simple scalping and Horizon X scalping pattern

When trading trends continuously, important is to gauge market signals which indicate the trend is strong, opening to new potential earning scenarios for investors. When noticing price is coming back to retest important key levels forming pullbacks, a trader should always look out for entry-points.

Scalping pullbacks

Scalp traders must focus on key resistance and support level to find entry point while trading pullbacks. Here at Trading Academy we developed a system, based on fast moving price action that will enable traders to have successful daily session.
We based our method on understanding where big money players come into action and by following their liquidity volume open winning positions. Horizon X is based on several scalping price patterns which find their fundamentals in risk and money management, key levels and entry points.
See image below:

Figure 2:Scalp trading pullbacks, XAUUSD, M1, (23rd July 2019)
In the picture above I highlight the principle of trading pullbacks in M1 timeframe, this method relies on entering the market in specific hot spot key levels. Even though many traders globally do not take into consideration risk management, our vision is that while scalp trade, investors should follow clear objective rules to be effective, here is one of our coral patterns and its trade management rules.

Horizon X Pattern #3

This pattern aims to gauge momentums, big money players moves, consisting in fast formation of large body candle sticks (black bearish/white bullish)

Figure3: Pattern #3 configuration
To be formed Pattern #3 require several steps to be accomplished by the market before we can enter our position with confidence:
  • First Momentum
When price level is broken out at consolidation level big buyers make the move dragging price level on a rally, usually between 10-15 PIPS (as the image above suggests).
  1. Large candles (bodies)
  2. Mostly of one colour (back/bearish, white/bullish)
  3. Candles close its high/lows of the move
  • Consolidation Period
Within this first part price level is conditioned by the presence of many buyers on one side and sellers on the other stabilizing the price in a narrow range while building up important structure.
  1. Small candles, at least 3
  2. Greater mix between white/black or bullish/bearish candles
  • Second Momentum (breaking the price level at consolidation) – can be bearish or bullish depending on scenario)
When price level is broken out at consolidation level big buyers make the move dragging price level on a rally, usually between 10-15 PIPS (as the image above suggests).
  1. Large candles (bodies)
  2. Mostly of one colour (back/bearish, white/bullish)
  3. Candles close its high/lows of the move
  • Pullback
Price is coming back to retest level at the previous consolidation level and when fractal is formed market is giving investors hints that a good spot to open a position is coming up.
  1. Small candles, at least 3
  2. Greater mix between white/black or bullish/bearish candles

Entering the market

Pattern #3 can be traded by entering the market within the retesting price area at consolidation level, however the tactics would be based more on aggressivity of trader personality and behaviour. In this booklet we will describe the most commonly used one.
Entering in consolidation structure
Market needs more liquidity for further movement and is going deeper toward the structure taking stop losses of weak traders. Smarter investors, however, use these stop losses for their position gaining, entering the market when a fractal is formed.
See image below:

Figure 4: Pattern #3, entering market at consolidation structure, USDCHF H1 (22nd July 2019)
Entering at consolidation boarder
Price touches edges of consolidation and starts to reverse. We would like to open position when fractal is formed.
See image below:

Figure 5: Pattern #3, market entry at consolidation border, GBPUSD M1 (14th Mar 2019)
  • Entering after false break out
Severe stop-loss testing. Big players move price aggressively till the point that it breaks consolidation structure. This is a perfect situation for major traders to enter the market, pushing the price towards its original direction. We will conservatively open trade when the price level reaches back consolidation, forming a fractal.
See image below:

Figure 6: Pattern #3, market entry after false break out, GBPUSD M1 (6th June 2019)

Trade Management

Similarly, we can use 4 elementary exit strategies of our Horizon X Pattern #3.
  1. We will aim for a high structure level from higher timeframes (very good as a second take profit).
  2. For 1-minute timeframe we will take half of our position with 10 points profit as a target and put our stop-loss on break-even for the rest of the position.
  3. Our take profit is based on having ATR 80 %.
  4. Rule of safety. Our first take profit is set to risk-reward ratio 1:1 with a half of position. When the take profit is hit, we are in a risk-free position for the second target.
On the other hand, stop losses will be always places on top of the entry structure to avoid important losses which will likely vanish all the trader day effort.
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We need crypto currencys...

European Commission - Press release Antitrust: Commission fines Barclays, RBS, Citigroup, JPMorgan and MUFG €1.07 billion for participating in foreign exchange spot trading cartel Brussels, 16 May 2019
In two settlement decisions, the European Commission has fined five banks for taking part in two cartels in the Spot Foreign Exchange market for 11 currencies - Euro, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Swiss Franc, US, Canadian, New Zealand and Australian Dollars, and Danish, Swedish and Norwegian crowns.
The first decision (so-called “Forex - Three Way Banana Split” cartel) imposes a total fine of €811 197 000 on Barclays, The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), Citigroup and JPMorgan.
The second decision (so-called “Forex- Essex Express” cartel) imposes a total fine of €257 682 000 on Barclays, RBS and MUFG Bank (formerly Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi).
UBS is an addressee of both decisions, but was not fined as it revealed the existence of the cartels to the Commission.
Commissioner Margrethe Vestager, in charge of competition policy said:“Companies and people depend on banks to exchange money to carry out transactions in foreign countries. Foreign exchange spot trading activities are one of the largest markets in the world, worth billions of euros every day. Today we have fined Barclays, The Royal Bank of Scotland, Citigroup, JPMorgan and MUFG Bank and these cartel decisions send a clear message that the Commission will not tolerate collusive behaviour in any sector of the financial markets. The behaviour of these banks undermined the integrity of the sector at the expense of the European economy and consumers”.
Foreign Exchange, or “Forex”, refers to the trading of currencies. When companies exchange large amounts of a certain currency against another, they usually do so through a Forex trader. The main customers of Forex traders include asset managers, pension funds, hedge funds, major companies and other banks.
Forex spot order transactions are meant to be executed on the same day at the prevailing exchange rate. The most liquid and traded currencies worldwide (five of which are used in the European Economic Area) are the Euro, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Swiss Franc, US, Canadian, New Zealand and Australian Dollars, and Danish, Swedish and Norwegian crowns.
The Commission's investigation revealed that some individual traders in charge of Forex spot trading of these currencies on behalf of the relevant banks exchanged sensitive information and trading plans, and occasionally coordinated their trading strategies through various online professional chatrooms.
The commercially sensitive information exchanged in these chatrooms related to:
1) outstanding customers' orders (i.e. the amount that a client wanted to exchange and the specific currencies involved, as well as indications on which client was involved in a transaction),
2) bid-ask spreads (i.e. prices) applicable to specific transactions,
3) their open risk positions (the currency they needed to sell or buy in order to convert their portfolios into their bank's currency), and
4) other details of current or planned trading activities.
The information exchanges, following the tacit understanding reached by the participating traders, enabled them to make informed market decisions on whether to sell or buy the currencies they had in their portfolios and when.
Occasionally, these information exchanges also allowed the traders to identify opportunities for coordination, for example through a practice called “standing down” (whereby some traders would temporarily refrain from trading activity to avoid interfering with another trader within the chatroom).
Most of the traders participating in the chatrooms knew each other on a personal basis - for example, one chatroom was called Essex Express ‘n the Jimmy because all the traders but “James” lived in Essex and met on a train to London. Some of the traders created the chatrooms and then invited one another to join, based on their trading activities and personal affinities, creating closed circles of trust.
The traders, who were direct competitors, typically logged in to multilateral chatrooms on Bloomberg terminals for the whole working day, and had extensive conversations about a variety of subjects, including recurring updates on their trading activities.
The Commission's investigation revealed the existence of two separate infringements concerning foreign exchange spot trading:
The following table details the participation and the duration of each company's involvement in each of the two infringements:
Company
Start
End
Three Way Banana Split / Two and a half men/ Only Marge
UBS
Barclays
RBS
Citigroup
JP Morgan
10/10/2011
18/12/2007
18/12/2007
18/12/2007
26/07/2010
31/01/2013
01/08/2012
19/04/2010
31/01/2013
31/01/2013
Essex Express / Semi Grumpy Old men
UBS
Barclays
RBS
Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi (now MUFG Bank)
14/12/2009
14/12/2009
14/09/2010
08/09/2010
submitted by smaakmaker to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Whether India witnessed any leapfrog in the cashless payments due to DeMon & the force feeding by Govt & RBI? - fact check

Can you flaunt increase of even 200% of insignificant components like UPI and BHIM & say that we are leapfrog to DIGITAL UTOPIA? Ponder

Government is still in a Fools paradise and throttle the cash flow which is very much needed for the rural and retail economy of country

Edit:

If you have any queries related to this post, please address them directly to James Wilson on twitter.

submitted by in3po to india [link] [comments]

Auto-trading fun with Bollinger bands [Novice level].

Whilst we have a fair few 'novice' posts about TA and Global Macro (aka "Fundamentals"), there aren't too many involving auto-trading. Seeing as I'm in the middle of teaching myself MQL4, I thought I'd throw this out there as discussion prompter.
By "novice", I mean someone who has moved beyond complete beginner ("what's a FOMC and a NFP?") but still not deploying robust and market ready strategies ("how does market structure affect news event response?"), so constructive criticism, informed commentary or taking the ideas and developing them further are very much the point of sharing in the first place. It's not meant to be a showcase of code, because the code is a mess!
This post got me thinking about how relatively trivial it would be to implement a Bollinger Band mean reversion autotrader.
Project Goals
My interest in the project was as a way to begin development of a skeleton EA that would use a custom indicator to implement trade signals. The point of this would be to allow for faster prototyping of visually based autotrading before taking it to the testing environment. The key advantage of this is that you can see on your charts which entries are being missed, something that is much more laborious to do via visual mode in the strategy tester.
Concept Development
So to begin the project, I sketched out the concept.
One way to trade Bollinger Bands is to trade the reversion to the mean. Intuitively, we expect that wider deviations from the mean will result in more reliable reversions to the mean. To explore this we could enter when price breaches the second SD band and then returns back inside it.
Here's the default Bollinger Band on default settings in MT4, demonstrating this sort of behaviour:
http://i.imgur.com/dK2oDO7.png
Prototyping
I want to use the indicator, and not the EA, to generate trade signals, as this is the point of the project for me. Because I'm lazy and grew up coding in basements, I opt to fiddle with the default indicator code rather than build up from scratch.
My first goal is to add two things.
Firstly, I want to add another layer of bands, because I saw a set up like that a while ago and liked it. (This is not a very good reason, and I think it costs me down the track).
Secondly, I want to add in a way to visually indicate the trade signals before we pass them to the EA.
Adding another set of bands is just a copy and paste of the existing bands. My learning point here is that I need to adjust the amount of buffers to match the number of bands I want. This comes into play for adding the trade signal arrows, as they need to go in the same sort of structure as the second lot of bands.
[I know from reading about the project goals in advance that EAs access custom indicators via iCustom(). This function can only receive the contents of one of the first 8 indicator buffers. Thus the idea will be that the buffer that marks out the trade entries on the indicator will later be used by the EA to mark out where entries should be. It's possible this is not the best way for EAs to access custom indicators , so input from more experienced coders is welcome!]
#property indicator_chart_window #property indicator_buffers 8 // <---- have to set this to match your copy and pasted buffer amount #property indicator_color1 LightSeaGreen #property indicator_color2 LightSeaGreen #property indicator_color3 LightSeaGreen // hack in (make 'em colourful. Turns out I didn't understand how the numbering worked, and indictator_color4 is never visualised) #property indicator_color4 clrWhite #property indicator_color5 clrWhite #property indicator_color6 clrRed #property indicator_color7 clrGreen #property indicator_color8 clrRed //--- indicator parameters input int InpBandsPeriod=50; // Bands Period input int InpBandsShift=0; // Bands Shift input double InpBandsInnerDeviations=1.0; // Add in for our other Band input double InpBandsOuterDeviations=2.0; // Bands Deviations //--- buffers double ExtMovingBuffer[]; double ExtUpperBuffer[]; double ExtLowerBuffer[]; double ExtStdDevBuffer[]; // hack in buffers (these buffers will store our trade signals) double SellSignalBuffer[]; double BuySignalBuffer[]; // these buffers will hold the additional bands. apologies for the naming, I didn't originally intend to share this double ExtUpperUpperBuffer[]; double ExtLowerLowerBuffer[]; //+------------------------------------------------------------------+ //| Custom indicator initialization function | //+------------------------------------------------------------------+ int OnInit(void) { //--- 1 additional buffer used for counting. IndicatorBuffers(8); // don't forget to adjust this to account for the new buffers IndicatorDigits(Digits); //--- middle line SetIndexStyle(0,DRAW_LINE); SetIndexBuffer(0,ExtMovingBuffer); SetIndexShift(0,InpBandsShift); SetIndexLabel(0,"Bands SMA"); //--- upper band SetIndexStyle(1,DRAW_LINE); SetIndexBuffer(1,ExtUpperBuffer); SetIndexShift(1,InpBandsShift); SetIndexLabel(1,"Bands Upper"); //--- lower band SetIndexStyle(2,DRAW_LINE); SetIndexBuffer(2,ExtLowerBuffer); SetIndexShift(2,InpBandsShift); SetIndexLabel(2,"Bands Lower"); SetIndexBuffer(3,ExtStdDevBuffer); //--- Copy and paste from above, and just change the number! Upper outer band is INDEX 4 SetIndexStyle(4,DRAW_LINE); SetIndexBuffer(4,ExtUpperUpperBuffer); SetIndexShift(4,InpBandsShift); SetIndexLabel(4,"Bands Outer Upper"); //--- Copy& paste, lower outer band is INDEX 5 SetIndexStyle(5,DRAW_LINE); SetIndexBuffer(5,ExtLowerLowerBuffer); SetIndexShift(5,InpBandsShift); SetIndexLabel(5,"Bands Outer Lower"); //--- remind myself which is which so I don't forget later: sell signal is INDEX 6!!!! SetIndexStyle(6,DRAW_ARROW); SetIndexArrow(6,218); SetIndexBuffer(6,SellSignalBuffer); SetIndexShift(6,InpBandsShift); SetIndexLabel(6,"Sell Signal"); //--- buy signal is INDEX 7 !!! SetIndexStyle(7,DRAW_ARROW); SetIndexArrow(7,217); SetIndexBuffer(7,BuySignalBuffer); SetIndexShift(7,InpBandsShift); SetIndexLabel(7,"Buy Signal"); //--- check for input parameter if(InpBandsPeriod<=0) { Print("Wrong input parameter Bands Period=",InpBandsPeriod); return(INIT_FAILED); } //--- SetIndexDrawBegin(0,InpBandsPeriod+InpBandsShift); SetIndexDrawBegin(1,InpBandsPeriod+InpBandsShift); SetIndexDrawBegin(2,InpBandsPeriod+InpBandsShift); // hack in our additional buffers, so they also start at the corect point SetIndexDrawBegin(4,InpBandsPeriod+InpBandsShift); SetIndexDrawBegin(5,InpBandsPeriod+InpBandsShift); SetIndexDrawBegin(6,InpBandsPeriod+InpBandsShift); SetIndexDrawBegin(7,InpBandsPeriod+InpBandsShift); //--- initialization done return(INIT_SUCCEEDED); } //+------------------------------------------------------------------+ //| Bollinger Bands | //+------------------------------------------------------------------+ // all of this code is from the default indicator int OnCalculate(const int rates_total, const int prev_calculated, const datetime &time[], const double &open[], const double &high[], const double &low[], const double &close[], const long &tick_volume[], const long &volume[], const int &spread[]) { int i,pos; //--- if(rates_total<=InpBandsPeriod || InpBandsPeriod<=0) { return(0); } //--- counting from 0 to rates_total ArraySetAsSeries(ExtMovingBuffer,false); ArraySetAsSeries(ExtUpperBuffer,false); ArraySetAsSeries(ExtLowerBuffer,false); ArraySetAsSeries(ExtStdDevBuffer,false); // hack in to make sure our custom buffers run in the same direction ArraySetAsSeries(SellSignalBuffer,false); ArraySetAsSeries(ExtUpperUpperBuffer,false); ArraySetAsSeries(ExtLowerLowerBuffer,false); ArraySetAsSeries(BuySignalBuffer,false); ArraySetAsSeries(close,false); ArraySetAsSeries(high,false); ArraySetAsSeries(low,false); //--- initial zero if(prev_calculated<1) { for(i=0; i1) pos=prev_calculated-1; else pos=0; //--- main cycle for(i=pos; i After a bit of tweaking typos, the indicator now displays two sets of bands, one at 1x SD and one at 2xSD from the mean (moving average). It also has two buffers that will use the DRAW_ARROW style to mark out potential trades.
Adding trade logic
I still can't decide if it's better to isolate the logic code in the Custom Indicator or the EA, in the long run. There seem to be performative, stylistic and redundancy issues, but for the moment the project is to put the logic in the Indicator, so that's what I did.
The fastest way to prototype this idea seems to be identifying when price closes outside of the far band.
This is trivial to achieve. We compare the close to the two outer bands, and if it's outside them, then we set the relevant trade signal buffer.
//
 double tempclose = close[i]; if(tempclose>(ExtUpperUpperBuffer[i]+10*Point)) { SellSignalBuffer[i] = high[i]+(20* Point); } else { SellSignalBuffer[i] = 0; } if(tempclose<(ExtLowerLowerBuffer[i]-10*Point)) { BuySignalBuffer[i] = low[i]-(20*Point); } else { BuySignalBuffer[i]=0; } } 
It works!
http://i.imgur.com/Ak3UkkK.png
Green arrows successfully mark out possible sell entries where price closes above the top band, and red arrows mark out possible buy entries when price closes below the lower band.
The logic can be a lot more complicated than this obviously, but the point of my project is to develop the iCustom technique, rather than make a good autotrader.
Now it's time to switch to the EA.
part two to follow
submitted by alotmorealots to Forex [link] [comments]

A framework for Investment/Trading as a mid-20-yo

Hi Everyone,
Brand new to reddit here (not sure how I escaped this deep deep black hole of internet for so long). I hope this is the right place.
First, I am here to distil what I have learned over the years of being a fool of the market. I’ll then try to piece together the checks and balances I have decided necessary to maintain long term success in investment management and trading. I will break it into two distinct product lines: Cash Equities and CFDs (index/forex) via FXCM/IG etc, as well as a General Risk Management section.
I have read extensively, like the usual Jack DSchwagger series, Stock Operator etc. If you haven’t read these I suggest you start there first.
General Risk Management and Setup:
Positioning/Size I cannot tell you how often I have been burned with poor position management across either cash equities or CFDs. I distinctly recall putting on a massive “no brainer” trade against the EUUSD in 2014 December. Entry 1.224. I got stopped out and lost 50% of my trading capital in 4 hours due to a margin call. I wasn’t even trying to scalp, I just wanted to get very, very rich. (I would’ve too if it weren’t for those meddling kids). The other side of this is that I express my cash equities portfolios in the form of “high conviction” trades/investments. Take A2M.AX. Average Entry of 6.XX through averaging up. It currently sits at more than 70% of my portfolio, even though I have a 12month timeframe. I have a higher conviction on Cash Equities with a far longer time frame than I do CFDs. Hence I position heavier.
There is a 2% rule floating out there that I semi-agree with. I’d like to hear your thoughts on this, as I would describe myself as much more of a risk taker and less systematic than I would like. I understand also there are more schools of thought, mechanical, pure TA etc etc. But no matter what fire you choose to play with, I think positioning has been the reason why I have lost money over 90% of the time, even if directionally I am 75% right within my time frame.
How do you guys balance your portfolio for maximum returns? Thoughts on 3-4 stock portfolios? Thoughts on CFD margin/position sizing for TA/discretionary? ( I know it will vary by style but would love to hear).
Trading Diary When I first waded into CFDs, I knew I wanted to keep a record of all my trades, in the hopes that I can reflect on what technical/fundamental ideas I opened and closed my trades in. A trading diary and reflection on those trades is huge in order for you to stop repeating really stupid mistakes.
Until recently I never had the mindset of actually sorting through the wins and losses of my past trades. YOU MUST HAVE A SYSTEM of going through the past days/weeks worth of trades. Reflection and reinforcement is key.
I think starting a blog for yourself is not a bad idea. It may not have readership, but it carries the important function of reflection and learning. Just as I am doing this very moment..
Research/Information Funnel The Economist. Period. *infinity. Start here. (Especially relevant for macro)
When I first started in Cash Equities I made the novice error of joining forums. Granted there is some great content that someone else more experienced has found and analysed, thus cutting down your research time. Right? Wrong.
I think it actually causes a shift in your behaviour to trust and rely on their primary opinion. If they’re right even once, you will now face a bias and think of them as a beacon of truth. Read Thinking Fast, Thinking Slow. As humans we’re inherently very lazy. Don’t let it make you take shortcuts.
I put this in general risk because information and bias is a HUGE risk to how you formulate your trading or investment thesis.
Even I noticed that the majority of my information sources including twitter liked to preach the “melt up” of the spooz etc. Confirmation Bias exists, especially in Investing. These guys had been talking of a market that was too strong for at least 2 years. Even though it finally semi-happened, they were still wrong for two years! Do you believe it would be valuable to find a peer group IRL as an additional source of information/debate?
Timeframe This closely relates to position/sizing. Timeframe goes hand in hand with positioning and how we wish to express risk. A low beta Banking stock with healthy dividends might warrant a larger position size if you look at it from a 10 year view point. The spooz on a 20 year view point would warrant a very different mindset when compared to a tick chart.
I have found it more helpful when thinking about timeframe as not “predicting” when I think something would happen, but use it as a matter of determining sizing.Am I really comfortable TSLA as 50% of my portfolio for 20 years? Hmm
Health Something I feel understated and forgotten about is the fact that sitting down for 10 hours a day with your eyes following green and red isn’t healthy. A healthy body will produce far better results if your headspace is clear and your emotions are in check. I would put more than a fair share of my mistakes as being due to emotionally driven trades (lose x find 2x) or trading when my physical mind is no longer sharp. Trading and Investing is a full time endeavour. Unless you are extremely fortunate or lucky in how you express your trades and investments, it will take a lot of time and involvement to find an edge that is more than just market. *I mean, isn’t that why we are here? *
[Edit] How do you guys ensure you’re balancing work or study and investment? I find myself mostly 100% work ever since graduating uni.
This turned out far longer than I expected. I would love to hear all feedback. Put me in my place! This is especially because I am about to commit more time to this as I bring it into a truly serious endeavour.
[Edit] Removed personal info
submitted by bertgrozhen to investing [link] [comments]

Price Behavior and Market Structure Intraday Trading Understand Stock Behaviour For Intraday Trading WHY YOU NEED TO UNDERSTAND PRICE ACTION WHEN TRADING ... Understanding Market Gaps and Slippage  FX SIGNAL TEAM An introduction to the basics of Forex Trading - YouTube Market Understanding  Trading Essentials Understanding the market behaviour to predict the next market moment with candlestick psychology

Understanding market behavior is more important with it a trader decides correctly either this type of market is safe for trading or not. Wrong analysis and wrong entry is a cause of loss for many traders. Some times he can make profit in any other pair if he knows it movement and behavior well. Trading is all about understanding what equilibrium is. Equilibrium is the correct market price at which the stock should ideally sell. If the market price is below equilibrium, then the trader should go long. If the market price is above the equilibrium, then the trader must consider the currency pair to be overpriced. Forex market traders define equilibrium as the moving average of the past ... This feeling can be highly frustrating, but every cloud has a silver lining: understanding the market structure has vastly improved my ability to read price charts and determine decent entry zones. This article offers a simple 3-step guide on how to approach and dissect the market structure of any Forex, CFD, or commodity graph. So I am starting this thread in the hope that we may shed some light on the behaviour of our favourite indicators. Knowing when they work, AND when they DON'T work, is vital if you want to minimise bad trades. Generally, the market is so noisy that it is very difficult to see the underlying behaviour of an indicator on a real price chart. Even though the forex market is decentralized, it isn’t pure and utter chaos! The participants in the FX market can be organized into a ladder. To better understand what we mean, here is a neat illustration: At the very top of the forex market ladder is the interbank market. Composed of the largest banks in the world, the participants of this market trade directly with each other ... Understanding market behavior Use of BDM and control currency pairs. You can see the strong NZD . Market A little further back is to collect orders. And this continues on its way. in these cases . Find the best point of entry is important. close GBPNZD and open again More than 60 $ Attached Images (click to enlarge) Post # 29; Quote; Apr 13, 2016 8:35am Apr 13, 2016 8:35am ahhamidz ... forex market unaided, choosing and trading the most profitable transactions based on meticulously written algorithms. Clear and concise feedback by the program lets the trader know exactly what is taking place. The program offers a demo to test the program out before buying. Understanding Forex Trading. When you are trading Forex you are trading one currency against another. An example would ...

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Price Behavior and Market Structure Intraday Trading

Understanding Market Gaps and Slippage FX SIGNAL TEAM What are Gaps? when gappage can occur? Why gaps are important in trading? how do I use gaps? What Is Slippage? Follow Us on Facebook https ... Understanding the market behaviour to predict the next market moment with candlestick psychology ... Trading forex will not make you rich overnight, yet it can provide an income stream alongside ... WHY YOU NEED TO UNDERSTAND PRICE ACTION WHEN TRADING **FOREX-STOCKS-CRYPTOCURRENCY** What Broker Do I recommend? https://bit.ly/2QCWYTD Disclaimer Our conten... This videos teaches market understanding through the essential tools needed to be a successful trader. enjoy. #PippinAintEasy on Facebook Facebook: www.faceb... ===== Account Open Link in Zerodha https://zerodha.com/open-account?c=ZMPXZP Zerodha Online Trading & Demat Account Ope... Important Risk Disclaimer: The calculation of profits discussed in this video is subject to any applicable fees that may be incurred by customers. Certain l... Understanding how price moves on a 1-hour chart and how the same can be interpreted as a behavior and that leads to the next impulse move. This is by far the most difficult one to explain in ...

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